Empirical analyses produce mixed results about an impact of policies to fertility. While some reports found some effect, others deny causal relationship. The most frequent conclusion is that, even if there is a relationship between family policy and fertility, it is more indirect than direct, and has only a limited impact on birth rates, mostly on timing of child birth or that family policy is necessary, but not sufficient fertility factor. One reason of failure of policy- fertility surveys might be limited introduction of individdual subjective behavioural background indicators like attitudes. The project analyses an impact of family policy on fertility behaviour in combination with public and individual attitudes. Because of complexity of fertility decisions also other additional micro and macro background indicators are involved into analyses (values, income level, perceived supports etc). The project will use combination of two theories - expanded Becker’s theory and planned behaviour theory. For empirical analyses combination of micro and macro level surveys are used.
The grant project proceeds from the practice-theory approach, which is used to bridge consumption and organization studies. The objective is to analyze how and why communicative interventions bring about change in domestic consumption practices and workplace practices or fail to do so. We focus on the following areas of practice transformation: consumer literacy (e.g. sustainable consumption, financial literacy and health related issues etc.) and organizational change (e.g. ICT innovation, introduction of new pro-environmental practices at workplaces, etc). The project is methodologically primarily qualitative using interviews, focus groups, participant observations to study practices in actually lived contexts. Both consumer households and various Estonian organizations will be researched. International cooperation contacts have been established with consumption and organization sociologists as well as researchers pioneering practice theory inspired behaviour change studies with whom the comparison of case studies and co-authoring of articles is intended. The main planned output of the project will be articles in international peer-reviewed journals. At least two PhD dissertations and at least six master’s theses will be completed within the project. In addition, the grant involves publication of the handbook “Social marketing: experiences and possibilities in Estonia”. Our intention is also to organize a medium-scale international seminar for the project partners and wider practice theory inspired research community. We also plan to conduct workshops and lectures about behaviour change communication for communication practitioners as well as implement the results of the research on the bachelor, master and doctorate level teaching at the Institute of Journalism and Communication of the University of Tartu throughout the duration of the project. We aim at generalizing the role of communication in different practice change settings into models that can complement the existing models, because the communication element has not been sufficiently studied in the practice change research. These models can also be applied in planning further practice change oriented communication both within organizations and targeted at larger audiences outside organizations. Information on how communication messages are appropriated into everyday lives of people can raise communicative literacy of both the communicators and audiences.
This project uses as a starting point the current spatial turn in the media and communication studies. The objective of this project is to analyse the socio-cultural transition in post-Soviet Estonia through the prism of social space. Based on theory of David Harvey, we conceptualise and study personal social spaces as process consisting of thee elements: accessibility and distanciation of, the appropriation and use of, and the domination and control of space. The first dimension of personal social space is the measure of the degree to which individual interactions have to accommodate with spatial constraints and opportunities. In our empirical studies it means analysing perceived distances with different countries/cultures, the way an individual defines their geo-cultural identity, their readiness for contacts with different cultures, and real geographical mobility. The second topic examines the ways in which space is occupied by individuals. Systematized appropriation may entail the production of territorially bounded forms of social solidarity. The third aspect reflects how individuals manage organisation and production of space. The main focus of the empirical studies will be foreign languages knowledge and acquisition. This project uses combination of quantitative and qualitative data. The distanciation and accessibility as well as individual use of social space, will be analysed using different representative quantitative survey data. In-depth interviews will be conducted for analysing further some specific aspects of social space (e.g. the characteristics of (virtual) social space).
The developments of contemporary society and media are highly reciprocal (see Hallin-Mancini 2004). In the grant project we aspire to present the role which will be designed for PSM in Estonia in XXI century, how can public service media (PSM) support the development of civil society in the globalized world and with fastly modifying technology. How to get stabile development in PSM and in civil society under the constantly changing conditions? The grant has two focuses: 1. OUTER FACTORS AND MEANS (regulations, technological development, international media-integration, interaction). We study the strategies and technologies of the best media centres of the world, research the options suitable for Estonia and synthesize the versions answering the needs of Estonian civil society with special attention given o the problem of Estonian Public Broadcastings new building. 2. PRACTICES OF ESTONIAN CITIZENS (incl old and new practices and expectations to broadcasting in network society) For specifying the expectations of Estonian citizens we study the databases both created earlier and being created (Me. Media. World 2002,2005,2008 and upcoming 2011), that include questions of the broadcasting which have not been analysed. The research will allow us to determine relation of Estonian inhabitants with societal processes and pertinent types of media use. The goal is to compile a typology of expectations to the PSM and map the expectations to the public service broadcasting (PSB). We analyse the media practices and expectations in different generations and on the basis of nationality, gender, educational level, place of residence and other socio-demoraphic characteristics. In addition to quantitative research we include focus groups and data on citizens' expectations to the PSM. The media-professional focus is also an important part of the study. We synthesize more general model of expectations. In essence we approach the questions of which is and how is developed semantic field, the media public sphere, the environment of mediated experiences important and notional to inhabitants. We deal with basic questions of professional media -- what is an event, how it becomes a media event, what are the expectations to the networked public service semantic field as a strategic environment of societal signification creation. Our broadcasting research consists of four aspects: socio-cultural, political, technological and professional. 6 doctoral and 5 master thesisis will be completed!
The project unites 8 internationally recognized research groups in Estonia in cultural theory and empirical cultural studies into one interdisciplinary centre. The centre is made up of the following thematically related research groups: semiotics, archaeology, ethnology, folkloristics, contemporary cultural studies, landscape studies, cultural communication studies and religious studies. The main tasks of the centre are: (a) doing comparative cultural studies and (re)presenting the unique materials about Estonian history of culture through interdisciplinary models of interpretation; (b) raising the methodological and theoretical levels in cultural research, and the sustainability of cultural research in Estonia; (c) creating a methodology for the research of cultural systems and processes, uniting different fields. The centre includes the following target-financed projects: 1) „Landscape practice and heritage”, SF0130033s07 (01.01.2007-31.12.2012) 2) “The second wave of cultural changes in re-independent Estonia”, SF0130008s07 (01.01.2007- 31.12.2012) 3) “Folklore and Society: Tradition Memory, Creativity, Applications”, SF0180139s08 (01.01.2008-31.12.2013) 4) “Social, Economic and Cultural Processes in Estonia in Prehistoric, Medieval and Modern Times”, SF0180150s08 (01.01.2008-31.12.2013) 5) “Meaning-generation and transdisciplinary methodology of semiotic analysis of culture”, SF0182748s06 (01.01.2006-31.12.2011) 6) “Dynamic Perspectives of Identity Politics - Analysis of Dialogue and Conflict”, SF0180157s08 (01.01.2008-31.12.2013) 7) “Actual complexity of cultural communication and methodological challenges of cultural research”, SF0180002s07 (01.01.2007-31.12.2012) 8) “Religion in biocultural paradigm”, Metanexus Institute grant (2009-2011)
The main objective of this project is to analyse the experiences different age groups have in their daily encounters with and usage practices of traditional and new media, and to explore interaction between generations in the process of socialisation into the emerging information society. In addition to the comparative focus on different generations’ use and perception of media, the significance of this project lies in its ambition to shed light simultaneously upon two main agents of socialisation among the older generation – parents and teachers – and their reflection upon the sharing of socialising tasks between them. Moreover, in addition to a commonly studied age groups of adolescents and school-aged children, the project focuses on pre-schoolers as a segment on which relatively scarce knowledge is available. Also, a focus upon peers and siblings as agents of (self-)socialisation enables the project to map a relatively large part of the contemporary field of socialisation. The methodological approach of the project is versatile and interdisciplinary as it combines the methodologies of sociology, media studies, educational sciences, psychology and ethnography. The international survey data and various cooperation projects with foreign partners allow comparing the processes under investigation in Estonia with those in other European countries. The project also allows performing an in-depth analysis of the phenomena under investigation, as the data from national surveys, semi-structured and focus group interviews as well as ethnographic materials are used. The main output of the project are publications in international journals. Related to the theme of the project two doctoral dissertations and at least six master’s theses will be defended. The results of the project will also provide context-specific information about children’s, parents’ and teachers’ needs and motivations with regard to media literacy, thus serving as an important knowledge base for working out the didactics of media education and programmes of teacher education in the field of media literacy, and for designing awareness raising campaigns for children and parents. In order to disseminate the results of the studies, articles in Estonian newspapers, journals and online environments as well as a handbook for parents will be published. Also, workshops and lectures about media education for pre-school teachers will be organised and special teaching materials will be designed.
The main aim of the grant is to study museum communication, cultural participation processes and audiences in the context of Estonian National Museum online and offline environments. This area has not received much attention in Estonia and bringing communication related knowledge to museums is especially important as in the last ten years, Internet has become important information and communication environment. Additionally, "New museology" has brought multimodal understanding of communication to the museums and it is important to study and implement new trends and ideas of museology also in Estonia. Research project has two major (interacting) objectives: 1) to study the relationship of the Estonian National Museum with its audiences, improve understanding of museum processes and analyze museum content in existing and planned permanent and temporary exhibitions (in general). 2) Second aim is to study the conditions of possibility and the development of ENM communication and audience participation through a series of (offline and online) interventions.The second layer consists of series of interventions where audiences will be involved in round-tables, public debate and focus group studies. There will also be chances to bring new meaning to the objects within museum and create exhibitions in virtual and actual museum spaces. At the same time, constant analysis of the materials and reflection of the processes will take place. With combination of theories and methods from communication studies, cultural studies and "new" museology, we plan to create online environment and increase visibility of the museum in other online communities. As the collected materials will be unique also in the international context, then the project will have good possibilities for publication in journals and collections of museology, new media and communication studies. In addition to international publications, at least two doctoral theses will be defended, international seminar and conference will be organized and collection of articles published. Estonian language working papers and seminars will enable to disseminate the knowledge collected in the grant project also in the local context.
The grant project will continue the analysis of collective identities as an important resource of sustainability in the context of the economic recession which is accompanied by growing social tension. The theoretical framework of the project is based on the concepts of cultural transformation of late-industrial welfare societies. The object of empirical studies is ethnic identity which has a central role in the self-determination of the population of Estonia. The aim of the project is to explore which are the ways of ethnic identity (re)construction in Estonia; on which symbols and linguistic practices is it based and which are the prerequisites for further identity development. The working hypotheses base largely on the results of the previous grant project (No 5845). The main topics: 1) Identity dynamic among ethnic Estonians. The main methods are text analysis, focused on the language policy as the central instrument in identity-construction and statistical analysis of interview data explaining the identity structures. 2) Identity dynamics among Russians in Estonia. The fragmentation of the Russian-speaking population might transform into the collective mobilization around certain identity pattern. In-depth interviews and comparative surveys in Estonia and Russia concerning ethnic identity and its relation with language, religion and other components of culture as well as political behavior, will be carried out. The main partners are Prof Cynthia Kaplan from Santa Barbara University, USA, and Prof Leokadia Drobizheva from the Institute of Sociology of the Russian Academy of Sciences. 3. Will the linguistically „integrated” Russians in Estonia form an elite in Estonian society or is there a danger that they will be culturally marginalized? Main methods used here are focus groups, case studies with youngsters once participated in a language immersion program as children, in-depth interviews, observation etc.. The aim is to publish at least eight articles of category 1.1. or category 1.2. and to finish three doctoral theses. The findings will be used to promote the state integration program and communication projects of the Integration Foundation.
The study is dealing with the analysis of the cultural dispositions and patterns of cultural consumption among Estonian population in the context of political, economis and social changes in Estonia during the last four decades. In the focus of research is the status of the book culture, reactions of the population with the world of books, including literary periodicals. Additionally also the role of the other cultural mediums is investigated, the role music and libraries and museums in the people’s lives. The aim of the project is to re-construct the dynamics of cultural consumption related to the political, economic and technological changes in Estonian society, applying for this purpose secondary analysis of the empirical data sets collected by Estonian sociologists during the four decades. Based on this empirical analysis, the project would try to develop a theoretical model explaining the changes in the patterns of cultural activities and preferences, particularly the changing role of the traditional forms of cultural participation in the course of the structural transformations in Estonian society. Besides the comprehensive analysis of the general trends in cultural consumption, the project includes two more specific sub-studies: first, the changing opportunities and expectations related in the changing society to the activities of traditional cultural institutions like publishing houses, libraries and museums, and, second, the changing attitudes concerning communicative and social role of the traditional forms of musical activities. These sub-projects are related to the doctoral studies of the two participants in the project and the post-graduate studies of the students of media and communication carried out under supervision of the applicants. For the purposes of these studies some data from the large representative sociological surveys of 2002, 2005 and 2008 are useful, but the main information will be collected by the narrowly focussed questionnaires targeted to the users of the libraries and museums and by the semi-structured interviews and focus groups with the persons belonging to the management of these institutions. As main results of the project there will be published a collective monograph and two doctoral dissertations, and be prepared at least 7 articles in the international scientific journals.
Mälupraktikad: järjepidevused ja katkestused 20. sajandi mäletamises
The aim of the study is to analyse how teachers on micro level (in a particular lesson situation on the level of utterances) and on more general level through teaching activities pass on their ICT related competence and how this is evaluated by pupils and what is their self-evaluation on their ICT skills and use in the class-room situation. Starting from literature overview, we will continue by analysing each teacher as a case through interviews, student questionnaires and later also by quantitative surves. We will look at ICT use and influence of the Tiger Leap Foundation's activities on teachers ICT skills and use.
Analysis of the work and family responsibilities by non-Estonians
The aim of the project is to analyse mechanisms of gender inequality in worklife (education and labour market, work values, income and well-being, unpaid housework, work and family balance etc). On the basis of analysis the recommendations are made to achieve greater equality and flexibility in Estonian policies and public discussions. The analysis is based on European Social Survey (www.europeansociasurvey.org) 2004-2010 data and other international comparative surveys.
Evaluation of the system of special service pensions:impact of the reform on employment and socialpolicy measures
Russian Child in Estonian general education school
The study proceeds from the assumption of non-apliccability of the Anglo-American ‚liberal‘ model of journalism to the journalism(s) in the Central and Eastern European countries where the development of media systems and the professionalism of journalism have been strongly influenced by extensive political and economic transformations. This comparative study will outline, find associations and differences in, and compare the journalism cultures of Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania, (taking into account the substantial Russian language journalism of the Baltic nations) and in a later stage, also in Croatia and Poland. In order to place the study into a broader context, the results will be compared with UK, Norwegian and Swedish research. The objective of the study is to identify common parameters that would allow a distinct model of development of journalism cultures in post-Communist countries to be outlined. The research would also attempt to explain the reasons why the ‘liberal‘ Anglo-American model had only very limited success in post-Communist media systems. The study will contribute to the methodology of comparative journalism studies by testing various combined approaches and methods. Theoretically, the study departs from the theory of interdiscursivity (Fairclough, Erjavec), normative media theories (McQuail, Elliott), theories of professionalisation (Millerson, Wilensky, Weaver). Mainly qualitative methods and comparative approach will be used. The outcome of the research will be scientific publications in international and national journals, doctoral and masters‘ theses and possibly a book.
The aim of the project is to get an overview of risks promoting domestic violence, map its prevalence in Estonia and develop a working instrument for practitioners solving the problem of domestic violence and its prevention. This applied research will be realized in three periods. 1. Qualitative focus groups with specialists working with cases of domestic violence in selected six municipalities will carried out. During this the insight, the forms and frequency of domestic violence and the risks that promote violence will be discussed with participants. 2. On the basis of these results a questionnaire will be developed and carried out in all Estonian municipalities. 3. During the third period a guide for risks assessment, helping strategies families and prevention of domestic violence will be developed on the basis of results of first and second period of the project. The guide will be developed together with experts.
The overall objective of the proposed project is to contribute to innovative and attractive VET practices in the ICT sector. Its specific objective is to build a sustainable multistakeholder network at European level which will actively foster gender mainstreaming in VET for the ICT sector. Its operational aims are to: Create a comprehensive, virtual resource centre on gender mainstreaming in VET for the ICT sector at European level - Promote good practices and innovative approaches in VET for the ICT sector regarding gender mainstreaming - Identify trends of gender mainstreaming in VET for the ICT sector and resutling impacts on VET practice - Raise awareness, inform and engage stakeholders and women - Expand the social network, exploit its results and set the basis for sustainability.
Perekäitumine põlvkondadevahelises võrdluses: Laste väärtus ja põlvkondadevahelised suhted
The study focuses on places of memory and cultures of remembrance in the 21th century Estonia. Places of memory are broadly understood as cultural phenomena that are collectively and consciously or unconsciously linked to the national past and identity. The places of memory selected for this research are: 1.events of national significance (the IIWW, ESSR), 2. culture phenomena (tradition), 3. institutions (museum). The main question posed in this study is about practices, system and logic of re-creating these places of memory as well as their interrelatedness through national history, (political) culture and contemporary global conceptual network. Simultaneously, it is a question of cultures of remembrance, i.e. plurality of relations and representations of the past. The study of specific cultures of remembrance focuses on questions of how society is “charged with memory”, what are the interests of different groups, what are the techniques and ways of representation of the past. Memory and culture are discoursively understood in this study. Methodologically the study proceeds from the theory of communicative and cultural memory of A.&J. Assmann as well as its elaborations within cultural and social studies. The main sources of this study are ethnographic and biographical material collected by the ENM, EOAM and ECHA as well as printed public texts. New sources are to be created via ethnographic fieldwork using methods of biographical and thematic interviews, unobtrusive observation of museum visitors etc. The source material created during the project will be delivered over to the archives of ENM, EOAM and ECHA to make them available for the wider circle of researchers. Interim results will be presented at conferences and seminars. Articles resulting from the project are published in Estonian and international publications. In the middle of the project a collection of articles will be published that introduces current results of this research project and its international cooperation. The project results with the publication of doctoral dissertations and a monograph.
Violence against children and child abuse is undoubtedly one of the most difficult research topics. Major difficulties are connected to hidden nature of the phenomenon, vagueness of the definition, and family privacy. Presented project will be a continuation of an ongoing research project that will come to the end in December 2005. The research project investigates children's perspective on violence and child abuse (see annex). In the proposed project goes deeper into domestic violence of children and adolescents. The research subjects are children from 0 to 18 years of age. Bearing in mind the sensitivity of the topic information will be collected from competent informants such as child protection workers and other professionals dealing with child abuse cases. In addition to the phenomenon of child abuse we are also interested to look at organization of professional work with such cases. During the study we will analyse typical cases and case management of child abuse. The theoretical basis of the project is social constructionism, which is applied and elaborated in Estonia by the applicant and other senior personnel of the project during last years (see annex). During this project the potentialities of social constructionist methodology will be used and developed. The project is designed to benefit the Estonian professionals dealing with child abuse. We hope that the research project will increase specialists' awareness of the importance of their practices. This, in turn, will ensure that children's needs will be properly met. In the end, the main beneficiaries will be the children and young people experiencing violence in their close relationships. More indirectly, the beneficiaries will be any children and young people whose safety is endangered.
Supports of local governments to families with children in 2008-2009
Sotsiaalteenuste andmeregistri STAR ja juhtumikorralduse koolitus
Marital relations, divorce and children - attitudes in Estonia 2009
Eesti Sotsiaalteadusliku Andmearhiivi andmekogu arendamine ning kasutamisvõimaluste ajakohastamine
'Public' is a central concept both in Estonian society and social analysis. The aim of project is to clarify formation of 'public' in Estonia as well as construction of 'public' in journalism 1954-2004. Interlacing of the concept of public sphere to media and the phenomena of 'public text' is relatively new in social studies in Estonia. It is based on analysis of theories and practices of totalitarian-democracy (1), theories of sociology (2), and media theories (incl. theory of public text) (3) Project is seeking the answer for followihg questions: how the 'public' has been created and constructed in the Estonian media during different eras and how those mechanism's shift has taken place? What are the functions of the mediated 'public' in different systems - totalitarian/democratic ones? What kind of roles' are allocated to the 'participation' by the media? What are the most critical questions of 'public' concerning Information age? Periodisation:1954-1969 formation of Soviet media and Soviet society, latent public in the sphere of culture under circumstances of totalitarian regime;1970-1987 crisis of the Soviet system, manifestation of the latent public in cultural sphere and development of latent political public sphere (dissidents) 1987-1991 disintegration of the Soviet regime, formation and development of political public in media 1992-2003 Modernisation/postmodernisation of public, preparation for the accession to other societies and institutions. 2004 - development of e-society and network 'public', development towards Information society. As a results of the study will be: conferences 2005, 2006 and the publication of monograph 2007 - which will consist of two parts - theoretical and practical (both in Estonian and in English); 10 articles in international publications will be published. Project is interconnected with theme 'Estonian media in the 21.st Century' (by Marju Lauristin), developing of analysis of the most important aspect - 'public'.